Sunday, 18 December 2011


Parking management involves the control of parking. It have three main goals, according to the situation and place.
  1. Using the existing road capacity is optimized by reducing the barrier movement.
  2. Parking demand efficiently.
  3. Restrict private vehicle travel demand, especially in the areas experiencing traffic congestion.
Parking controls should be selected accordingly situation and the place. Parking management can be divided into two, that is roadside  parking control and off-road parking.

Roadside  Parking Control 

1. Receipt System
  • Car park management  by receipt system widely used in Malaysia, particularly in the 1970s
  • It is usually used in the places visited by the public as the central shop or office. 
  • This receipt system method is the only way to ensure that short-term Parkers had chance enough to use the parking spaces on the roadside because have a maximum time limt to park a car can be set.
  • This method is suitable for use in areas that are fraught with short-term placement area like    shopping centers, banks and post offices. 

2. Parking Meter
  • The management approach using parking meters are usually used in urban areas with high traffic volume.
  • An area within the city zoned as a zone meter allows placement of the vehicle only in metered spaces.
  • In terms of traffic management, this method allows the use of parking more effectively in the day by increasing level of use of each parking lot
  • This system can accommodate more vehicles in a time where it can reduce the provision of new parking places. 

3. Parking Tape
  • When the driver enters the zone scheme in which the system is using tape card Parking 'during parking, the tape be displayed by the user in the vehicle windshield and marks on the tape will be placed within the vehicle.
  •  Tape were installed to show the proper time arrived and time leaving the parking space automatically.  
  •  This time can be seen by the officers or employees effective parking regulations.
  • Advantages of tape car park is no capital cost temporary installation.
  • Disadvantage, including requiring enforcement personnel are many, difficult for users, especially drivers who are on a tour to get the tape.


Off-Road Parking.

1. Space Control
  • This method is the control of the car park with the most firmly and can be implemented in areas of urban centers experiencing serious traffic congestion with the permission planning. 
  • This method involves the removal of existeing parking space and the creation of protected areas to the car (car restricted area).  
  • It is usually followed by the provision of central parking  in downtown. 
  • If necessary, the parking space is allowed in that area but the total and the use of a limited.

2. Payment Control
  • Tariffs for car parking could be modified to control the level of use the car park.  
  • Tariffs can be differentiated to give an advantage to short-term Parkers and give 'fine' long-stay commuters.  
  • Payments should not be too high as it will reduce the demand up to the detrimental stage.
  • This method can be implemented easily on places of public-owned car park.
  • Effectiveness of the costs not only depend on the rate but also its structure.

3. Time Control
  • Time control can be implemented by closing the parking cars at peak hours, between 7.30 am to 9.00 am and between 4.00 pm to 8.00 pm for the block use of parking spaces is limited by the long-stay Commuters.
  • Give more space to short-term Parkers and increase the parking turnover  
  • Usedon roads with high traffic volume at the peak time and traffic congestion problems.
  • Can also be applied in the form of limiting use of parking for short term only, for example not more than two hours.
  • More easily implemented by local authorities on publid owner parking space.



Rapid increase in vehicle

The towns in Peninsular Malaysia has experienced an increase vehicles in line with the rapid economic growth in the follow  by the increase in household income that directly improve purchasing power and the ability to own private vehicles also is increased. In urban public transport services that is not satisfactory, more private vehicle owners to use private car to working , shopping and other purposes the trip. This makes the demand for car parking, especially in the city center increased substantially.

Business and Service Sector Growth

In line with rapid economic development, growth in floor space for trade and services are increasing. this can be viewed with the increase in the hotels, high-rise buildings that accommodate office space and business center of exclusive a large scale. These developments have directly increase trip generation to the city center by car, especially private car to perform daily activities.

Supply of Free Parking
There are many government buildings are located in city center offers free car parking spaces to their employees. Indirectly, this has encouraged many of their employees come to office using private vehicles, and so use of private vehicles to travel to other elsewhere in town and will  increase the demand for space car park.

Lack of Public Transport Service Efficiency

Most public transport is less efficient in terms of services include services that are not on schedule, conditions and quality of public transport vehicles that are not comfortable and placement bus stops away. These are among the factors that are not encourage the majority of those who make the journey use of public transport services, but use private vehicles for almost all journeys. 

The Increaseof Temporary  Car Parking

As a result of pressure on the demand for parking cars in the city center, most areas have been proposed for private development has been used as while parking by the developer. This has become increasingly narrow road space for vehicle movement and is one of factor of traffic congestion in the city center as well as encourage more many people who have private vehicles using their own vehicles to city center.

Car Parking For The Disabled

Because of the parking standards adopted by nearly all cities in Peninsular Malaysia is a standard that has been so long provided, no standards available for use by the disabled. At this time the number of drivers that from handicapped people increases due to the vehicle design has been provided. However at the end of these days, showed awareness towards the provision of car parking for disabled driversmade without regard to any standards.

Tuesday, 8 November 2011


A parking lot also known as car lot, is a cleared area that is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface.In most countries where cars are the dominant mode of transportation, parking lots are a feature of every city and suburban area. shopping malls, sports stadium, and similar venues often feature parking lots of immense area.

Design and locational considerations

Diagram of example parking lot layout with angle parking as seen from above. White arrows show direction of allowed travel in each lane (for right-hand-drive countries; vice versa in left-hand-drive countries). Several parking spaces closest to the building entrance are reserved for the handicapped. Cars of various colors are shown parked in some of the spaces. The obtusely pointed end indicates the front end of each car.

Parking Area types 


Off-street parking is the most common and accepted method of satisfying facility parking needs.When siting off-street parking areas, the designer should consider:
  • Creating multiple smaller parking areas rather than one large mass
  • Integrating planted islands to increase aesthetics
  • Minimize extensive grading operations by designing to the topography
  • Ensuring a distance of at least 15 meters is provided from proposed  parking area entrances and exits to intersections.
  • Minimizing the number of entrances and exits


If on-street parking is used, the following factors must be
  • Permit only parallel parking
  • Maintain a minimum distance of 15 meters from on-street parking spaces to intersections and offstreet parking area entrances.
  • Break up long lines of vehicles with occasional planting island projections if appropriate.
  • Ensure streets maintain required traffic-carrying capacities and provide safe vehicular and pedestrian passage.
Off-street Perpendicular Parking

For the designer, the parallel parking configuration can be used where suitable off-street parking cannot be accommodated or is not practical. For the driver, parallel parking requires experience, confidence,
and patience.

● Works well in extremely narrow, linear spaces
● Requires minimum pavement area

Difficult maneuvering for most drivers
● Less than ideal visibility of adjacent traffic
● Inefficient use of on-street space

On-street Parallel Parking

Especially effective in low turnover rate or long term parking areas, the perpendicular, or 90 degree parking configuration is the most efficient and economical since it accommodates the most vehicles per
linear meter.

● Works well with either one- or two-way aisles
● Handles the most vehicles per square meter of pavement
● Handles most vehicles per linear meter

Requires widest area
● Difficult maneuvering for some drivers
● Two-way traffic can create some visibility problems

                    90 Degree Parking Dimensions and Geometry 

Angled - 60 Degree 

This parking area configuration is ideal for a fast turnover rate or predominantly short term use. This is often offset by difficulties of inefficient circulation patterns and one-way aisles.

Easy maneuvering in and out of parking spaces
● Good visibility
● Lends itself to either one-or two-way aisles
● Most common short term parking configuration

● Requires more pavement per vehicle than perpendicular configuration
● Handles less vehicles per linear meter

60 Degree Parking Dimensions and Geometry  

Angled - 30 Degree 

● Easy parking
● Reduced width requirements for layout

● Requires the most pavement per vehicle
● Doesn't work well with two-way aisles


30 Degree Parking Dimensions and Geometry             

Environmental considerations

Water pollution

Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Virtually all of the rain (minus evaporation) that falls becomes urban runoff. To avoid flooding and unsafe driving conditions, the lots are built to effectively channel and collect runoff.Parking lots, along with roads, are often the principal source of water pollution in urban areas.


Many areas today also require minimum landscaping  in parking lots. This usually principally means the planting of trees to provide shade. Customers have long preferred shaded parking spaces in the summer, but parking lot providers have long been antagonistic to planting trees because of the extra cost of cleaning the parking lot.

However, parking lots represent significant heat islands and, indeed, heat sinks in urban areas. The heat from paved areas in urban zones has been shown to even have the power to change the weather locally. By providing trees or other means of shading parking lots, the heat and glare resulting from them can be significantly reduced.

Land usage

A parking lot needs fairly large space, around 25 square metres (270 sq ft) times the number of places. This means that parking lots usually need more land area than for corresponding buildings for offices or shops if most employees and visitors arrive by car. This means covering large areas with asphalt.